Knowledge Is a Currency Of The Universe


In order to get to know this topic in more detail, it is important to define everything concepts that we will encounter in this research.

Project and management

Project as a term has several definitions. Different authors have different view of the project, and after analyzing several different definitions, we singled out a couple, in our opinion, relevant. American International Institute of Management projects, or PMI for short (English Project Management Institute - PMI), defines the project as a time undertaking aimed at creating a unique product, service or some other specific result Another important definition of a project comes from by the International Project Management Association, IPMA (eng.

International Project Management Association - IPMA), which says that the project is an operation limited by time and costs/money, which aims to achieve a series of pre-defined results (to achieve the goals of the project), all in accordance with standards and quality requirements Based on the above definitions, we can to conclude, the project has its basic characteristics by which we can recognize it, and

these are:

- Limited duration

- Limited budget, ie expenses

- Limited other resources (human, material, etc.)

- The existence of a goal, that is, the desire to fulfill the intended goal of the project

- Existence of pre-defined standards and quality requirements

The listed characteristics represent only a general understanding of the characteristics of the project, and based on them it can be concluded that the project is, in the broadest possible way sense, every activity and process that has a specific goal, budget and time restriction. So, we all participate in a large number of projects every day greatly contributes to the importance of this topic.

In addition to "project", the term "management" is often encountered in the literature, which in in the widest possible context it means management. This term originates from English the word manage, which means management or management. As the author defines, in a broader sense, "management represents a set of activities that plan, organize and direct material and human resources in the organization in order to achieve the defined goals of the organization". The same author defines narrower the meaning of management, i.e. its narrower definition which says that "management represents a set of activities that guide, motivate and stimulate employees to make the most of their efforts in achieving the defined goals organisations".

The basic functions of management, according to Fajol, are:

1. Planning

2. Organizing

3. Coordination

4. Commanding

5. Control

The difference between today's theories and Fayol's theory defined at the time is that today the concept of coordination is removed from the definitions, because it is considered to be already included in all the other listed items, and the concept of cutting is changed to management or management. Based on everything that was said above, it is very easy to conclude that the term project management represents project management in the simplest possible way in the sense of defining it. It is important to note that it is not just a management process which includes the implementation of what is written or said, rather than the planning process itself of the project, the organization of the resources that will be spent on the same, the coordination of all resources that are consumed during project implementation and relations with all interest groups gathered around the company and/or organization, as well as controls done in order to determine whether what was planned was actually done.

Types of management

Management can be classified on several bases, i.e. in the literature

we meet divisions of management according to the level of responsibility, according to the way of management and inclusion of the rest of the team in the decision-making process, and according to the theoretical basis i the historical development of management, i.e. the appearance and termination of certain schools management.

The common characteristic of the mentioned classifications is that all theories agree about one, that in the whole process the main role is played by the person who manages the organization or the company, that is, the manager. The manager has his own way of management, which is then identifies with one of the existing theories in order to be able to, to the greatest extent possible explain its operation and predict certain actions. Managers bear a large amount of responsibility for the work of each organization and in case that organization or enterprise records losses, the manager is the one who pays the price of that loss, and also in the event that everything works perfectly, the greatest credit goes to the manager. importance. In addition, it is important to mention that the same authors distinguish management by the size of the companies that these managers lead, i.e. there are managers of small, medium and large enterprises8, whereby we can say that managers of small enterprises are important for us in this research because the research will be based on smaller projects in IT, specifically in startup companies. What is important to state at the end, as one of the most influential factors in itself management, is a style of leadership, i.e. management, which many authors cite as a very important factor in every organization, and it will be especially important for ours Research. Therefore, how does a manager lead his organization, company, organizational unit or project, there are the following leadership styles9:

1. Autocratic - represents a style of leadership in which the manager makes all decisions independently, while not respecting the opinions of other members team, other colleagues. Over time, autocratically oriented managers become operatives, that is, they turn into executors of tasks for which they are absent a sense of creativity, improvisation, risk-taking, dynamism. This type of system is not characterized by flexibility and its only advantage reflected in precisely defined norms and rules that must be strictly followed respect and the employees themselves always keep in mind what awaits them in certain situations, no surprises. The disadvantages are reflected in the fact that such organizations have very cold and unworked interpersonal relations, where everyone does what they are told and besides that they don't want to participate in anything what other activities.

2. Democratic - is such a style of leadership, as the name suggests, based on the principles of democracy and joint decision-making. Communication between of all levels of management is constant, considering that everyone participates in making it decision. The characteristics of this leadership style are extremely good and open interpersonal relations in the company, constant communication and interaction between employees. Proponents of this style of leadership are led with the theory that the entire company will be more productive and better if they are employees are satisfied with the situation within that company and if they are motivated to work, and greater motivation is achieved by involving employees in the decision-making process.

3. Liberal or laissez-faire style – is a leadership style in which managerial participation in management is reduced to a minimum. That is, the manager tries to give as much freedom as possible to employees who will be creative and self-initiative and thus encourage the entire organization to achieve better the result. Liberal style of leadership is based on precisely defined hierarchy, division of work and tasks, decentralization organization into smaller work units, groups, where each team member performs tasks assigned to him and he is responsible for them, and also receives credit for job well done in case of success.

Entrepreneurial project management

The concept of entrepreneurship is defined as: activity aimed at starting, organizing and innovating business companies, with the basic goal of creating a new market and making a profit. It is related to all aspects of human behavior and action - it develops creativity, promotes the birth of ideas and enriches human needs. So, entrepreneurship is not a classic form of management, bureaucratic, but it is traits of creativity, creation of new ideas, creation of new value with help adequate response to changes, both in the organization and in the environment. Considering both definitions, project and entrepreneurship, we can bring the conclusion that the entrepreneurial project is a fusion of these two concepts, that is, it represents one innovative and modern way of project management, process management in to an organization that defines time limitations, limited resources and desires for the achievement of the set goals. All these limitations and the need to realize the plan goals give even more space to the entrepreneurial way of project management, i.e. the project manager himself and his quality, resourcefulness and ability to introduce innovations come to the fore.

A group of American authors, co-founders of Venture Founders Corporation defines basic characteristics of the entrepreneurial management team:

1. Self-confidence

2. Setting new challenges and realistic goals

3. Long-term thinking

4. Using money as a measure of success

5. Persistent problem solving

6. Risk taking

7. Learning from failure

8. Using criticism and critical thinking

9. Taking the initiative and seeking personal responsibility

10. Rational use of resources

11. Struggle with your personal standards.

From the mentioned characteristics, that is, it can be concluded that the entrepreneurial way of managing the organization is very turbulent, on the one hand interesting - for those who can bear it, while on the other hand it can be self-destructive - in case you are one of those who cannot fight with themselves yourself, or you promote the attitude that you are ideal for this type of management, even though you are not. If we were to draw a parallel between all of the above, we can say that the key term that needs to be addressed is entrepreneurial project management, in fact a way of managing projects that is extremely flexible, dynamic, that takes in taking into account the wishes, needs and motives of the entire organization and its employees, in order to achieved the best possible end result. Likewise, this way of managing projects is can be defined as a mixture of democratic and liberal style, where no case, the manager does not put himself in a situation where he decides on a certain issue without to listen and include the opinion of other team members. Also, this way project management is ready for change, for innovation, which makes it flexible and adaptive.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Popular Posts